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The reading habits of young people

Sometimes, these writing games would also appear in the body of the book.


Gradus ad Parnassum, s.l., s.d.

Notes in the margin that do not relate to the text were editions of prior drafts. The subject, Virtus est vitium fugere (Fleeing vice is a virtue in itself), is taken from Epistles by Horace.
"Someone who neglects their body while being paralysed from gout in their feet is rightly considered as stupid and foolish; similarly, those who delay taking the path of virtue are also stupid".
(Si quis negligeret corpus nodosa podagra / cum vexat stultus merito fatuusque putatur / Haud secus / ac stulti / virtutis / qui remo/rantur / Principi/um).


In the middle of the 18th century, sons and nephews of bishop and philosopher George Berkeley annotated the margins of Gradus ad Parnassum, a famous poetic dictionary. They added around a hundred expressions in Latin, either taken from classical authors or written by themselves to varying degrees of success. The book is not just a window into Ancien Régime educational methods. The young readers also turned it into a social space, letting their friends write in the margins.


Gradus ad Parnassum, s.l., s.d.

Many of the adolescents' friends wrote their signatures in the margins of the Gradus. The book contains evidence of friendship and rivalry, attraction and tension. Here is written, "To hell with you, Miss De Voirez"!