Colleges established by English, Irish and Scottish Catholic exiles in France (with Paris playing a central role), Spain and other European countries worked to retain and eventually win back hearts and minds within the islands. William Allen, Robert Persons, Henry Fitzsimons and many other accomplished scholars and persuasive writers began an on-going effort to re-establish a renewed version of the Catholic Church in all three countries. The process was far from unopposed. Stout resistance came from Protestant writers who believed as fervently in their position in matters of faith as did their Catholic opponents.
Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I